Scientific Notation: Definition and Examples
  • 3-minute read
  • 17th November 2023

Scientific Notation: Definition and Examples

In the world of science, numbers reign supreme. Metrics, data, and statistics are used to study the world around us.

One tool that often proves invaluable for dealing with large and small numbers is scientific notation. In this article, we’ll explore what scientific notation is, why it’s used, and the various forms it can take.

What Is Scientific Notation?

Scientific notation, also known as standard form or exponential notation, is a method for expressing very large or very small numbers in a more manageable and comprehensible format.

It simplifies working with numbers by representing them as a product of two factors: a coefficient and a power of 10. The coefficient is typically a number between 1 and 10, and the exponent denotes how many powers of 10 are needed to reach the actual number.

Why Is Scientific Notation Used?

In the realm of science, math, and engineering, large and small numbers frequently appear. People working in these fields deal with a wide range of numerical values. Scientific notation provides several benefits:


Scientific notation makes it easier to grasp the magnitude of numbers at a glance, facilitating quick comparisons.


Scientific notation reduces the number of digits, saving space and making data more manageable.


Scientific notation ensures that no leading or trailing zeros are omitted, minimizing the risk of errors.

Ease of Calculation

When multiplying or dividing numbers in scientific notation, you can simply add or subtract the exponents to simplify calculations.

Forms of Scientific Notation

Scientific notation can take different forms based on the number’s size and context. The most common forms include:

Standard Form

In this form, the coefficient a is a real number, and n can be a positive or negative integer. Here are some examples:

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(Avogadro’s number, a positive exponent)

(The speed of light in a vacuum, a negative exponent)

Engineering Notation

This is similar to standard form, but the coefficient a is restricted to being a power of 1,000. It’s commonly used in engineering and is often more intuitive for calculations involving metric units. Examples include:

(2.4 kilo, or 2,400)

  (8.2 micro, or 0.0000082)

Fractional Scientific Notation

This is used when numbers are between 0 and 1, and the coefficient is still a real number between 1 and 10. Examples include:



Mixed Scientific Notation

Sometimes, you may encounter numbers where only the exponent is in scientific notation. In this case, the coefficient is typically notated in standard decimal form. For instance:

 (4,500,000 or 4.5 million)


Scientific notation is a valuable tool for anyone working with very large and small values. If you’re a student writing about research and statistics, you might need to use scientific notation to simplify and communicate the values you come across.

And if you need an expert editor to take a look at your work, we’re happy to help. While we don’t check the accuracy of figures and calculations, we can ensure your grammar, spelling, punctuation, tone, referencing, and formatting are perfect. Try us out for free today!


What does the small number in scientific notation represent?

The small number represents the power of 10, or how many zeros the number has.

Where is scientific notation commonly used?

Scientific notation is often used in the fields of math, science, and engineering, but it’s also valuable in marketing and anything else that involves statistics.

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