The question of when to capitalise a word can be tricky. As such, sometimes even the most exacting of grammar nerds will need to consult a guide. If you\u2019re writing an essay and you\u2019re unsure about a word, then, check the rules below to see whether a capital is required.\n\nWhich Words Should Be Capitalised?\nThe following situations always require a capital letter:\n\n\n \tThe first word in a sentence\n \tThe first-person pronoun \u2018I\u2019, along with the contractions \u2018I\u2019m\u2019 and \u2018I\u2019ll\u2019\n \tCountries (e.g. 'France')\n \tSettlements and landmarks (e.g. 'Paris', 'the Eiffel Tower')\n \tLanguages (e.g. \u2018French\u2019, \u2018Spanish\u2019 or \u2018German\u2019)\n \tProper nouns related to nationality, (e.g. \u2018Frenchman\u2019 or \u2018Englishman\u2019)\n \tMonths and days of the week (e.g. \u2018We met on a Thursday in June\u2019)\n \tSpecial dates and historical periods (e.g. \u2018Christmas Day\u2019 or 'the Iron Age')\n \tImportant historical events (e.g. 'World War One')\n \tThe names of companies, brands and institutions (e.g. \u2018Coca Cola\u2019)\n \tAbbreviated titles (e.g. \u2018Mr\u2019, \u2018Ms\u2019 or \u2018Dr\u2019)\n \tHonorifics in salutations or before a name (e.g. \u2018Dear Sir\u2019 or \u2018Dr Quinn\u2019)\n \tPeople's names (e.g. 'Donald' or 'Hillary')\n \tSpecial honours and awards (e.g. 'Bachelor of Physics')\n\nAlthough this list covers the most common examples, there are also other situations where terms should be capitalised.\nFor example, when discussing religions, words like \u2018God\u2019 and \u2018Allah\u2019, as well as words pronouns relating to deities (e.g. 'Him'), are often capitalised. This is known as reverential capitalisation.\nSometimes, job titles are also capitalised, especially when used as part of an official title or alongside a name (e.g. 'Jane Smith, Head of Recruitment, will be attending the meeting'). This isn't necessary when the same words are used generically, though (e.g. we would write 'She hopes to become President of the United States' because it refers to a specific position, but no capitalisation is needed in 'Many countries have presidents').\n\nTitle Capitalisation\nIt's also conventional to capitalise some words in titles, especially with books and films. When it comes to essay titles, many style guides require you to capitalise just the first word of titles and subtitles, plus proper nouns. This is known as 'sentence case'. A title like this would run:\nA guide to English: Perfecting grammar in an academic paper\nAlternatively, some style guide suggest that all of the main words (i.e. any that aren\u2019t articles, conjunctions or prepositions) should be capitalised. This is known as 'title case'. A title like this would appear as:\nA Guide to English: Perfecting Grammar in an Academic Paper\nMake sure to check which format your university prefers.\n\nWhen NOT to Capitalise\nSome situations might seem like a word should be capitalised but, in fact, do not require it. Words which don\u2019t need to be capitalised include:\n\n\n \tThe seasons (e.g. 'spring' or 'summer')\n \tThe word \u2018god\u2019 when used in relation to the general idea of gods, rather than the Christian God\n \tAcademic subjects which aren\u2019t part of a degree or other qualification title (e.g. \u2018He studied maths and science at school\u2019)\n\nIt's also important to be consistent with capitalisation (i.e. to use the same style of capitalisation throughout each document). And make sure to proofread carefully if you're not sure about certain terms!