Want to use an image you found online in your academic writing? Read our guide below and find out how to cite an online image using Harvard referencing, including the in-text citations and reference list entry.\r\nHow to Cite an Online Image in Harvard Referencing\r\nTo cite an image found online in Harvard referencing, you need to give the creator's surname and the year of creation in the in-text citations:\r\nThis picture depicts George V and Nicholas II in Berlin (Sandau, 1913).\r\nIf you name the creator in the main text, though, you only need to include the date in brackets. For example:\r\nSandau\u2019s (1913) photograph depicts George V and Nicholas II in Berlin.\r\nYou won't always be able to find the creator or date for images you find online, though. In these cases, you'll need to adapt the citation accordingly:\r\n\r\n\tIf you cannot find an image's creator, give its title in italics (if you can't find the title either, use a short description of what the picture depicts).\r\n\tWhen the date is missing, use the abbreviation 'n.d.' (short for 'no date').\r\n\r\nThis might work in practice as follows:\r\nRasputin was known for his piercing gaze (Detail of Rasputin, n.d.).\r\nHere, for instance, we give a description of the photo you can see below. And the reader would then use this description to look up the photo in the reference list, where you'll provide full source information.\r\n\r\n[caption id="attachment_45680" align="aligncenter" width="527"] Rasputin's piercing eyes (photo cited in example above).[\/caption]\r\n\r\nOnline Images in a Harvard Reference List\r\nThe reference list format for an online image in Harvard referencing is:\r\nCreator surname, Initial. (year) Title of image, Collection (if applicable) [Online]. Available at URL (Accessed date).\r\nSo, for our first example above, the full reference would be:\r\nSandau, E. (1913)\u00a0Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia (1868-1968), and King George V (1865-1936), Royal Collection Trust [Online]. Available at https:\/\/www.mountainsandmegapixels.com\/?lightbox=dataItem-kas62h851 (Accessed 4 March 2019).\r\nAs with citations, though, you'll need to adapt the reference if you don't have the creator's name or year of production. The key points here are:\r\n\r\n\tWhen no creator name is available, use the image title (or a description) in its place. You will also use this to determine the position of the source in an alphabetical reference list.\r\n\tFor images with no date, use 'n.d.' in place of the year.\r\n\r\nThus, we would reference the second example above as follows:\r\nDetail of Rasputin (n.d.) [Online]. Available at http:\/\/www.referenced.co.uk\/ten-historical-figures-who-died-unusual-deaths\/ (Accessed 8 May 2020).\r\nHarvard Variations and Proofreading\r\nHarvard referencing is a style, not a system. Consequently, the exact format used for citations and references may vary. We\u2019ve used the guidelines set out in the Open University\u2019s guide to Harvard referencing [PDF], but make sure to check your university\u2019s style guide if you have one.\r\nWhatever style of referencing you use, though, clarity and consistency are key. So, to make sure your academic writing is always error free, why not ask Proofed\u2019s referencing experts to check your citations are all in order?